Mammography

Mammography

Mammography is a specific type of imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts. A mammography exam, called a mammogram, is used to aid in the early detection and diagnosis of breast diseases in women.

An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in Indian women (after cervical cancer) and the most common in Urban Indian population. Early detection remains the best tool in the fight against breast cancer. Breast self-exams, clinical breast exams, and screening mammography play key roles in uncovering disease at an early stage, when the mortality rate can be reduced significantly. Compared to traditional radiography, mammography offers a considerably higher spatial and contrast resolution, allowing for the early detection of even the smallest changes in soft tissue. RISK FACTORS(of what??? May b u can reword “who r at risk?”) Age > 40 years Family history of breast cancer in first or second degree relatives

Menstrual history :

Our high-end mammography system ? Siemens MAMMOMAT 3000 Nova offers all clinical applications in one unit. This system supports both screening examinations and diagnostic applications and features special views, magnification, specimen radiography, and stereotactic biopsy. MAMMOMAT 3000 Nova features an X-ray tube which, unlike other mammography systems, uses two different anode materials. The Opdose function auto-selects the best kV value and anode/filter combination (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, W/Rh) according to the individual breast characteristics in order to achieve optimal image quality with the lowest possible dose. The resulting images are of convincing quality and retakes are reduced to a minimum.

Early menopause
Late menopause
Exposure to X-rays
Hormone replacement therapy
Obesity
With its many advantages, the MAMMOMAT 3000 Nova offers real comfort and convenience ? for physicians and for the patient.

3T Magnetom Skyra (MRI)

MRI is short for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (If your doctor has sent you for an MRA [Magnetic Resonance Angiography], this is also a kind of MRI.) MRI is an advanced technology that lets your doctor see internal organs, blood vessels, muscles, joints, tumors, areas of infection, and more — without x-rays, surgery, or pain. MRI is very safe; in fact, it makes use of natural forces and has no known harmful effects. It’s important to know that MRI will not expose you to any radiation.

MR SUSCEPTIBILITY WEIGHTED IMAGING- to asses micro bleeds and traumatic diffuse axonal injury.
MRI Brain perfusion without contrast [ 3D ASL For early stroke detection].
MRI Dynamic contrast perfusion for tumor diagnosis and to tumor detection recurrence.
MR Tractography / Diffusion tensor imaging ( DTI) [For evaluation of motor neuron disease, periventricular leucomalacia, head and spine injuries and SOL].
MRI CSF flow study—for normal pressure hydrocephalus.
MR Cisternogram (For CSF rhinorrhoea).
Functional MRI Brain —To asses brain function areas for tumor surgery.
MRI neurogram – for cranial nerves, brachial plexopathy , lumbar plexopathy, peripheral neuropathy ).
MR Myelogram [without contrast].
MRI Renal angio and peripheral angio without IV contrast (NATIVE).
MRI Whole body scan including whole body diffusion [for cancer screening].
MRI Carotid angiov.
MR Aortic angio.
MRI Brain angio.
MRI Urogram [without contrast].
MRI Sialogram [without contrast].
Magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography [MRCP].
MR Colonography – Enterography for small bowel pathology.
Fetal MRI.
MR Cardiac viability study.
MR mammogram with dedicated 16 channel breast coil with breast spectroscopy.
Endorectal coil MRI for prostate cancer.
MR Spectroscopy [2D, 3D] [Brain, breast and prostate].
MR Arthrogram — for shoulder, Hip.
MR Cartilage impaling [MAPLT] — for knee joint osteoarthritis changes.

3-D / 4D Ultrasound

3-D / 4D Ultrasound With Color Doppler Elastography Of Breast, Liver And Echocardiography

Ultrsonography (USG) is a procedure by which images of the various organs in the body are obtained with the help of ultrasound waves. Essentially ultrasound waves are sound waves in the very high frequency range (2.5 to 5.0 MHz). At this frequency these sound waves are inaudible to the human ear.

Ultrasound waves are able to pass through body tissues to a variable degree. In the case of some body tissues they may pass through unhindered, while in other cases these waves may be partly reflected back, or absorbed by the tissue such as air cells, or be blocked completely as by bone. Those ultrasound waves that get reflected back are received by a transducer. Depending upon the signal strength of the returned waves and the time taken for the return path images can be created which show the broad outline of the organs and some of the structures in them.

Fortunately, the transducer that generates the ultrasound waves can also be used to detect these waves on their return path.

Features

Adding a New Dimension to the Single-System Ultrasound Solution With fourSight™ 4D ultrasound imaging technology, bring another dimension of premium performance to the superb imaging capabilities of your ACUSON Antares™ ultrasound system. FourSight 4D imaging expands the utility of diagnostic ultrasound with comprehensive, realtime images of anatomical structures and pathological conditions displayed simultaneously in multiple spatial dimensions.

The flexible, powerful system architecture of the Antares system allows for a seamless upgrade tofourSight 4D imaging The slim, lightweight, ergonomic design of transducers offers exceptional user and patient comfort All basic 3D/4D controls are centrally located on the ergonomic control panel, reducing the hand motions required for 4D acquisition

User-friendly controls adjust line density and elevation slice spacing for optimal volume rate and image quality control during setup and live 4D imaging Editing tools include parallel cut, polygon, trace, undo last, undo all and 4D cine during live imaging and freeze-frame. 4D cine and clip functions provide adjustable control of the clip and cine length Four display screen formats, including side-by-side and four-quadrant asymmetrical display Streamlined, intuitive workflow supports storage of 3D/4D volume, clip and static images, all at the push of a button

Digital Xray

Digital Xray (Computed Radiography) With Facilities For Contrast Studies

Digital radiography is a form of x-ray imaging, where digital X-ray sensors are used instead of traditional photographic film. Advantages include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. Also less radiation can be used to produce an image of similar contrast to conventional radiography.

Digital Radiography (DR) or (DX) is essentially filmless X-ray image capture. In place of X-ray film, a digital image capturing device is used to record the X-ray image and make it available as a digital file that can be presented for interpretation and saved as part of the patient’s medical record. The advantages of DR over film include immediate image preview and availability, a wider dynamic range which makes it more forgiving for over and under exposure as well as the ability to apply special image processing techniques that enhance overall display of the image.

We take pride in delivering the highest quality medical care to our patients with our, state-of-the-art Digital Radiography systems.

Today, the digital radiography (DR) technology has transformed X-ray imaging. Medicare Diagnostic Center uses the CR 30-X Digital X-ray — a new generation CR reader from Agfa with high-resolution cassettes; in combination with the Heliophos D X-ray system from Siemens, which yields high-resolution digital X-ray images.

What are the advantages of Digital X-rays?

The largest benefit of digital x-rays is the ability to computer-enhance the images, making them larger, clearer, or higher contrast at will.

It’s faster
The physician can view images instantly.
Upto 90 percent less radiation.
Enhances images in a variety of ways to improve viewing.
Images can be stored electronically for immediate retrieval.

Digital O.P.G

Digital O.P.G (Ortho-Pantogram)

Dental panoramic radiography equipment consists of a horizontal rotating arm which holds an X-ray source and a moving film mechanism (carrying a film) arranged at opposed extremities. The patient’s skull sits between the X-ray generator and the film. The X-ray source is collimated toward the film, to give a beam shaped as a vertical blade having a width of 4-7mm when arriving on the film, after crossing the patient’s skull. Also the height of that beam covers the mandibles and the maxilla regions. The arm moves and its movement may be described as a rotation around an instant center which shifts on a dedicated trajectory.
Normally, the person bites on a plastic spatula so that all the teeth, especially the crowns can be viewed individually. The whole orthopantomogram process takes about one minute. The patient’s actual radiation exposure time varies between 8–22 seconds for the machine’s excursion around the skull.

C.T. Scan

194 Slice P/Sec. C.T. Scan With Coronary Angiography

A computed tomography (CT) scan is a relatively simple, safe, and completely painless examination that radiologists have performed for many years. The scan produces a series of images and can detect many conditions that do not show up on conventional x-rays. Your doctor has ordered this test to help make an accurate diagnosis of your condition. The results help determine the best course of treatment for you.

During the scan, a thin beam of x-rays is focused on a specific part of your body, such as the head, chest, liver, spleen, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidneys, or spine. The x-ray tube moves rapidly around this site, enabling multiple images to be made from different angles to create a cross-sectional picture. The x-ray beam is picked up by an electronic detector which records the information and feeds it into a computer.

The computer then analyzes the information and constructs an image on a TV screen. During some CT scans, a contrast medium (commonly called “dye”) is used to outline blood vessels or highlight organs of the body (eg, liver, kidneys) so that they can be seen more easily.

Coronary Angiography

Coronary artery disease affects blood vessels that supply nutrition to the heart muscle. It begins when, for some unknown reason, normal muscle cells in the wall of these blood vessels begin to multiply out of turn at one or more points. These cells grow and accumulate cholesterol from the blood resulting in a swelling on the inside of the blood vessel. It is this swelling that causes obstruction to the flow of blood. Sometimes a break in the covering of this swelling leads to the formation of a clot at that point. If the clot blocks the artery completely, a heart attack may result. Whenever the block remains incomplete (with or without clot) it usually produces chest pain commonly called “angina”. The disease usually develops slowly over a number of years and usually remains undetected for long. Only when clot formation occurs, or when there is a sudden increase in the size of the swelling, that sudden heart attacks strike. Such events are largely unpredictable.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Whole body CT with 0.30 sec/ per rotation 3 Beat Cardiac CT with any heart rate Lowest Radiation –powered by SAFFIRE Dual energy application – removes implant metallic artifacts, differentiates uric acid- cystic stones and identifies gout crystals 4D Adaptive spiral to visualize real time joint motion

ULTRA FAST

CT Brain → 2 sec.
CT Chest → 2.5 sec.
CT Abdomen → 3 sec.
CT Chest and Abdomen → 5.5 sec.
Whole Body Angio → 8 sec.
Brain and Neck Angio → 10 sec.
PARANASAL Sinuses → 0.30 sec.

ULTRA LOW RADIATION DOSE—— POWERED BY Siemens 194 Slice P/Sec. CT SPECIAL STUDIES

3 Beat Cardiac CT with any heart rate.
Dual-energy application – removes implant metallic artifacts, differentiates uric acid- cystic stones, and identifies gout crystals.
4D Adaptive spiral to visualize real-time joint motion.
CT Urogram with and without contrast.
CT Cisternogram

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Fully Automatic Analysers

Lab With Fully Automatic Analysers

Here in our Medicare laboratory, tests are done on clinical specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient as pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

According to ISO 15189 norm, all pathological results must be verified by a competent professional. In some countries staff like clinical scientists do the majority of this work inside the laboratory with abnormal results referred to the relevant pathologist. In others, only medical staff (pathologist or clinical biologist) is concerned by this phase. It can be assisted by some software in order to validate normal or non modified results. Medical staff are sometimes also required in order to explain pathology results to physicians. For a simple result given by phone or for a technical problem it’s a medical technologist or medical lab scientist explaining it to a registered nurse.

Departments in some countries are exclusively directed by a specialized Pathologist, in others a consultant, medical or non-medical, may be the Head of Department. Clinical Scientists have the right to interpret and discuss pathology results in their discipline in many countries, in Europe they are qualified to at least Masters level, may have a PhD and can have an exit qualification equivalent to medical staff e.g. FRCPath in the UK. In France only medical staff (Pharm.D. and M.D. specialized in Anatomical pathology or Clinical biology) can discuss pathological results, clinical scientists are not considered as a part of medical staff.

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Bone Densitometry

Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bone densitometry, is an enhanced form of x-ray technology that is used to measure bone loss. DXA is today’s established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD).

An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging.

DXA is most often performed on the lower spine and hips. In children and some adults, the whole body is sometimes scanned. Peripheral devices that use x-ray or ultrasound are sometimes used to screen for low bone mass. In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to diagnose or monitor low bone mass (QCT). This is accurate but less commonly used than DXA scanning.

E.E.G. & NCV / EMG

ECG

An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a commonly used, non-invasive procedure for recording the electrical activity of the heart. Electrocardiography is the starting point for detecting many cardiac problems (chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, etc.). It is used routinely in physical examinations and for monitoring the patient’s condition during and after surgery, as well as during intensive care. It is the basic measurement used for tests such as exercise tolerance. The ECG works mostly by detecting and amplifying the tiny electrical changes on the skin that are caused when the heart muscle “depolarises” during each heartbeat.

EEG

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain’s spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus on the spectral content of EEG, that is, the type of neural oscillations that can be observed in EEG signals. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study. A secondary clinical use of EEG is in the diagnosis of coma, encephalopathies, and brain death. A third clinical use of EEG is for studies of sleep and sleep disorders where recordings are typically done for one full night, sometimes more. EEG used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of anatomical imaging techniques with high.

EMG

Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. The signals can be analyzed to detect medical abnormalities, activation level, recruitment order or to analyze the biomechanics of human or animal movement.

NCV

Nerve conduction velocity is the speed at which an electrochemical signal propagates down a neural pathway. Many things can affect this, including axon diameter, myelination, the internal resistance of the axon, and temperature. Nerve conduction velocity differs from species to species, and to a lesser degree, from individual to individual.

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PET CT

Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (better known as PET-CT or PET/CT) is a nuclear medicine technique which combines, in a single gantry, a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner, to acquire sequential images from both devices in the same session, which are combined into a single superposed (co-registered) image. Thus, functional imaging obtained by PET, which depicts the spatial distribution of metabolic or biochemical activity in the body can be more precisely aligned or correlated with anatomic imaging obtained by CT scanning. Two- and three-dimensional image reconstruction may be rendered as a function of a common software and control system.

PET-CT has revolutionized medical diagnosis in many fields, by adding precision of anatomic localization to functional imaging, which was previously lacking from pure PET imaging. For example, many diagnostic imaging procedures in oncology, surgical planning, radiation therapy and cancer staging have been changing rapidly under the influence of PET-CT availability, and centers have been gradually abandoning conventional PET devices and substituting them by PET-CTs. Although the combined/hybrid device is considerably more expensive, it has the advantage of providing both functions as stand-alone examinations, being, in fact, two devices in one.